Points to Remember

1 C Introduction

  • Developed by Dennis Ritchie.
  • Belongs to 3rd Gen Langauge.
  • C is High Level Language.
  • C is Structured Lanaguage.
  • C is Procedural Langauge.

  • 2 Programming Tokens

  • Literals are contant values for variables.
  • C has 32 keywords.
  • $(dollar) and _(underscore) allowed for identifiers
  • const keyword is use to declare constant.

  • 3 Operators

  • TYPEs: Unary, Binary, Ternary
  • Precedence: Order of evaluation in expression.
  • Associativity: Direction of evaluation in expression.
  • Relational Expression always returns 0(false) or 1(true)

  • 4 Conditional Statements

  • Statements associated with if block executes iff the condition return true(non-zero).
  • Statements associated with else block executes iff the condition return false(zero).
  • Switch cases are use when we have finite set of option with fix values, usefull for menu driven programs.
  • break is use to control the fall through of switch cases.

  • 5 Iteration Statements

  • while and for are entry control loops.
  • do-while is exit control loop.
  • Loop executes till the condition returns true(non-zero).
  • break - stop execution & terminate the loop
  • continue - stop execution & continue the loop

  • 6 Input/Output

  • Functionality supported by stdio.h header file.
  • int printf("formatter",...arg) method used for display/output.
  • int scanf("formatter",...arg) method used for input.

  • 7 Function

  • Implementation of modular programming approach.
  • Most important benifit is code reusability.
  • Function Elements: prototype, definition, calling.
  • Function Content: name, return_type, argument_list, body.

  • 8 Pointers

  • Simple address types variables.
  • Use to store the address of another variable.
  • & operator is use to access address.
  • * operator is use to de-refrencing.

  • 9 Arrays

  • Collection of similar data elements.
  • Allocates contiguous memory space.
  • Access with index i.e 0 <= index < size
  • Usefull to store related data elements.

  • 10 String

  • Collection of characters are called string.
  • String is character array in C.
  • Always ends with '\0'(NULL Character).
  • Functionality suported by string.h header file.


  • 11 Structure & Union

  • Both are user defined data collections.
  • Their elements are called members.
  • Structure allocates invidual memory for all members.
  • Union allocates common memory space for all members.

  • 12 enum & typedef

  • Use to create user define data.
  • enum is a set of fix values, like days, months etc
  • typedef is use to declare new data type.

  • 13 Dynamic Mem Allocation

  • Usefull to allocate memory at runtime.
  • Functionality supported by stdlib.h and alloc.h header files.
  • Functions used : calloc, malloc, realloc, free.
  • All allocation methods returns void pointer.

  • 14 File Handling

  • The C file system is composed of several interrelated functions.
  • Functionality supported by stdio.h header files.
  • A file pointer is a pointer to a structure of type FILE.
  • Usefull functions: fopen(path, mode), fclose(fptr)





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